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What’s the difference between MLA and Chicago? What citation style does my field use? Listed below are resources for the major styles (MLA, Chicago, APA) and an A-Z list of different fields’ citation styles.
This style is most commonly used in the humanities, particularly by fields that study literature and/or critical theory, such as English or comparative literature. The fields of art history, film/TV studies, and philosophy may use either MLA or Chicago.
MLA publishes two guides for writing and documenting research: the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, written for high school and undergraduate students, and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, for graduate students, scholars, and professional writers.
Official Website: The site provides links to both MLA style books. The only free resource is a brief FAQ page.
MLA Formatting and Style Guide — Information from Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab
Understanding MLA Style (11 min): A video guide to MLA that includes the 2016 updates, produced by Kyle Stedman, a professor of English at Rockford University.
The Chicago Manual of Style comprises two systems of citation: (1) the “humanities style” (notes and bibliography) and (2) the author-date system Chicago is used by a wide assortment of fields, such as history, information science, and communications. However, fields that use Chicago may also use APA or MLA. Art history, classics, film/TV, and philosophy may employ either style.
The Chicago Manual of Style publishes a heavy hardcover book, The Chicago Manual of Style, as well as an online version (you will need institutional access, e.g., through a UCLA computer).
The APA style is commonly used by fields in the social sciences such as psychology, linguistics, and education. APA publishes the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, a pocket guide, and instructor and student manuals.
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